Heb. 7:22 8:6
Covenant—mutual agreement between parties. May or may not stipulate conditions. It may be in the form of a promise or of an understanding.
A biblical covenant is an agreement reached between God and man in which each binds himself in certain ways or to assume a particular role to each other according to a determined standard. A divine covenant emphasizes God’s arrangement, which man can accept or reject, but there is no ground on which man can argue with God concerning it.
God made different covenants.
1. Noah. Gen. 6:18—before the flood
2. After the flood. Gen. 9:9-17
3. Abraham—Gen. 15:18, 17:2
4. Israel—Exod. 19:1-8 Duet. 5:1-3
5. The covenant was first made, then the Ten Commandments given. So the covenant included the Ten Commandments. For a particular people.
Compare Heb. 9:16-20 to Exod. 24:1-8
1. According to these verses, when did the first covenant become of force? Death
2. Death of what?
3. When did the second covenant become of force?
On God’s part, the first covenant contained his commands, promises and the penalties for violation of the law. On the people’s part, they heard and understood and agreed to be obedient to all that God’s had commanded.
Violation of the law they agreed to obey would put them under what according to Gal. 3:10? Duet. 27:15-25? A curse. What could the law not do to the transgressor? Justify How does Gal.1:1-13 deal with this? How could this be accomplished? A new covenant. Heb. 8:7
New ( kainos) meaning a new kind or character. 8:13, 9:15 New ( neos) new in time. 12:24 So the new covenant is new in both kind (character) and in time and is no way related to the first. 8:13 Heb. 8:8-12
Being new, it has the following qualities
1. Different- (vs. 9) not according to the one he made with their fathers. Made with only house of Israel . The new would be made with all people. ( universal),
2. It is a covenant of grace and faith. Rom. 3:24, 27. You are not born into it, you are taught into it. Matt. 28:18-20 Mark. 16:15,16
3. It is spiritual in nature and not fleshly. Vs. 10. It addresses the heart thru teaching. The mind, the organ of understanding. Eph.3:4. This new law would be obeyed because he wanted to and not because of fear of punishment or death. It is service from the heart.
4. Their God-my people. What is meant by this phrase? Was not he Israel ’s God under the first? Exod. 6:7. Why is it now different?
a. Spiritual nations, not physical. As a physical nation, they were separated from other nations by birth and divine selection.
b. Under the second, we are his by spiritual birth, a new creation. Jn. 3:1-7 II Cor. 5:16, 17.
c. We have a personal relationship with him. We as individuals offer ourselves willingly. Psa. 110:3
d. We are enjoying a relationship with God as the true tabernacle (9:11) and not in the shadow of copies. 10:1
5. Sins are remembered no more. (12) Why are they not remembered no more? Because of God’s mercy. This mercy was not shown under the first covenant.
- CL Bruner